Is This Ultimate or Serviceability Limit State Failure?

Kindly look at the image carefully, and lend your professional opinion if the failure of the building will be categorized under ultimate or serviceability limit state. By posting and discussing your opinion on the comment section, I am very certain that knowledge and deeper understanding of this topic will be enhanced.

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  1. It is uls failure because by careful observation,it is seen that some columns are not positioned in the strategic location and thereby causing a great bending moment when it is loaded.

  2. Although such type of construction without considering any design parameters is cosidered as total failure as per SLS & ULS. But preliminary it's construction methodology failure. The structure could have survived if the brick wall underneath the beam had been constructed after completion of the works in the floor above.

  3. i think it is ULS failure, the slab have been overloaded and when they were building the wall on top, they didn't consider the ultimate load that the slab can carry.

  4. short answer
    ULS failure in the supports (columns or supporting brick wall)
    SLS failure in slab (or beam) cuz great deflection but still no total collaps

    ULS failure in the columns or let say in the supporting brick walls (cuz as we can see they collapsed and therefor no support in the middle at all) that led to extend the length between support of the slab that provoked deflection over the SLS limit (while the slab still didn't totally collapse = not ULS)

  5. This is not a structural design failure as they removed a supporting column purposely according to given image and Size of the beam depth. Robustness could not achieve this kind of concerns as a failure. Anyhow, This is a building collapse. anyhow can be retrofitting or renovated.

  6. I think it is ULS as well as SLS which is a result of overloading of slab leading to deflection and flexural failure and might possibly lead to collapse

  7. In my opinion, ULS. The structure is broken, the materials work in plasticity, we are not talking about “small strains” but “big strains


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