Crack patterns can offer insight into the most likely cause of a structural failure in reinforced concrete structures. Looking at the picture in the post, what is the most likely cause of the structural failure in the building?
Structures are designed to satisfy ultimate and serviceability limit state requirements. Under ultimate limit state requirements, strength requirements such as bending, beam shear, punching shear, axial compression or tension, fatigue, etc are expected to be satisfied. Punching shear occurs when there is a high concentration of localised load (such as column load) on a flat element such as a flat slab or footing.
In serviceability limit state requirements, phenomena that can affect the appearance or functionality of the structure, or comfort of the occupants/users are addressed. Such phenomenon can include deflection, vibration or cracking.