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Deflection of Structures According to Eurocode 2

Checking for deflection is an important serviceability limit state (SLS) requirement in the design of structures. This check ensures that the structure does not...

Structural Design of Corbels

A corbel is a very short structural cantilever member projecting from a wall or a column for the purpose of carrying loads. In reinforced...

Types of Floor Systems for Steel Framed Buildings

Floors in buildings have a primary function of carrying loads and supporting the activities of the occupants. In addition to carrying loads, floors in...

Vibration Serviceability of Composite Slabs

Vibration analysis of floors is not entirely new in the field of structural engineering. Numerous studies and researches have been devoted to human-structure interaction,...

Design of Pile Cap Using Staad Foundation Advanced

Pile caps are rigid plate structures that are used to transfer superstructure load from columns to a group of piles. They are usually subjected...

Lapping of Reinforcements and Use of Rebar Couplers – Peculiarities and Differences

In reinforced concrete buildings, it is almost impossible to carry out construction without lapping reinforcements at one point or another. This is due to...

The Role of Compression Steel in Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Deflection is one of the most important serviceability limit state criteria in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Excessive deflection in a structure can...

Design of Bridge Pier and Pier Cap

Bridge pier caps are horizontal structural members used for transferring bridge deck loads to the piers, before they are transferred to the foundation. They...

Cracking Due to Edge Restraint and Early Thermal Effects in Concrete

Crack width is calculated by multiplying the crack inducing strain by the crack spacing (i.e. the movement over a length equal to the crack...

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Concrete

Coefficient of thermal expansion is defined as the change in unit length per degree of temperature change. In a concrete element, it is therefore...

Restraint and Restraint Factors of Concrete

If movement (expansion and/or contraction) is restricted within a young concrete element, tensile stresses will develop which will lead to cracking. This restriction to...

Cracking in Concrete

Eurocode recognises that cracking is normal in concrete subjected to bending, shear, torsion, and restraint from movement (clause 7.3.1 EN 1992 1-1). Cracking is...

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Guidelines for Tying of Reinforcement

In the construction of reinforced concrete structures, reinforcement bars must be tied together in order to hold them in place and to also facilitate...

Cost of Reinforcement Works in Nigeria

Installation of reinforcements is an important item of work in the construction of reinforced concrete structures. The cost of reinforcement works therefore significantly impacts...

Design of Shear Walls

Shear walls are structural members that provide additional lateral stiffness to a building by resisting shear, moment, and axial forces, which are produced due...

Technical Guide: Detailing and Arrangement of Beam Reinforcements on Site

Beams are horizontal structural elements used for supporting lateral loads. In conventional reinforced concrete structures, beams usually receive load from the floor slab, but...
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