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Shear Deformation of Beams Using Virtual Work Method

The predominant cause of deformation in beams subjected to externally applied load is bending, and that is one of the most popular analytical methods...

Sinking of Supports of Propped Cantilever Beams

Settlement of foundations can occur due to  loads from the superstructure of buildings. Geotechnical engineers are usually interested in seeing that the settlements are...

Concealing of PVC pipes in RC Columns

In modern building construction, PVC pipes (plumbing works) on the surface of buildings is not always very desirable. In a country like Nigeria, PVC...

Design of Moment-Resisting Column Base Plates

In the design of portal frames and other steel structures, moment-resisting bases can be provided if large lateral forces and bending moments are anticipated....
Duplex building

Cost of Duplex Construction in Nigeria

In Nigeria, duplexes are the most preferred choice for residential building construction. Duplexes normally consist of a ground floor and one suspended reinforced concrete...

Design of Gantry Crane Girders | BS 5950

Overhead cranes are usually required in industrial or storage buildings for the lifting and/or movement of heavy loads from one point to another. These...

How to Determine the Depth of Foundation

Foundations are substructure elements that transmit the superstructure load of a structure to the final bearing soil layer/stratum. The depth of a foundation is...

Design of Reinforced Concrete (R.C.) Slabs

Reinforced concrete (R.C.) slabs are plate elements used to form the floors of buildings. In a typical reinforced concrete building, reinforcement bars arranged as...


Design of Precast Columns | Worked Example

Precast concrete columns are reinforced concrete columns that are cast and cured on the ground before being hoisted up and installed in their desired...

Analysis of Arch-Frame Structure with Tie Element: A solved Example

An arch is supported on frame with different levels of supports as shown above. The frame is supported on a hinge at support A...

Plastic Analysis of Frames

Deflection of Beams



Analysis of Vehicle Collision on Bridge Piers

EN 1991-1-7 discussed and gave guidance on accidental actions and their applications in the design calculations for bridge structures. It is obvious that there...

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Latest Reviews

Understanding Human-Structure Interaction

Recent researches have shown that human beings interact with structural systems undergoing vibration. Initially it was thought that human body is an inert mass...


What is wrong with this section structural detailing?

A section of a beam profile is shown above. BASED ON THE GIVEN DATA ONLY AND WITHOUT MAKING ANY ASSUMPTIONS, identify the technical error(s)...

Vortex Shedding and Wind Load Analysis of Tall Buildings

In fluid dynamics, a Kármán vortex street is a repeating pattern of swirling vortices caused by the unsteady separation of flow of a fluid...

Design of Inclined Columns | Slanted Columns

Inclined or slanted columns are columns that are leaning at an angle away from perfect verticality (90 degrees to the horizontal). This is usually...

Partial Replacement of Sand with Waste Glass in Concrete Production

Glass is a transparent or translucent material that is used in the production of materials like sheet glass and container glass. It is manufactured...

Transcona Grain Elevator Failure: Lessons on Bearing Capacity

The Canadian Pacific Railway Company in the year 1913 constructed the Transcona grain elevators of about 36400 m3 capacity to provide relief for the...

Crack Width and Crack Spacing Calculation in Concrete

Cracking occurs in concrete when the restrained strain exceeds the tensile strain capacity of the concrete. In critical elements like water retaining structures, crack...


Shear failure usually occurs in form diagonal cracks, and must be checked under ultimate limit state during the structural design of buildings. In reinforced...
Materials that are added to a concrete mix aside from the basic ingredients (cement, water, and aggregates) are generally referred to as admixtures. The...





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