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Problems To Encounter If You Don’t Install HVAC Access Doors and Panels

Maintaining an efficient HVAC system is crucial in delivering good indoor air quality in commercial establishments. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) pertains to the air...

Thermal Actions | How to Apply Fire Loading on Steel Structures

The action of fire on a structure is represented by thermal actions, and EN 1991-1-2:2002 (Eurocode 1, Part 2) provides several options for considering...

How to Apply Wind Load on Roofs of Buildings

Wind load is one of the significant actions on roofs. While other loads such as the self-weight of materials, imposed loads, service loads, and...

Transfer Structures: Analysis and Design

Transfer structures can be described as structural elements that redirect gravity loads (usually from columns or walls) to other structures (such as beams or...

Light Gauge Steel Building Construction

Light gauge steel framing is typically based on the use of standard C or Z-shaped steel sections produced by cold rolling from strip steel....

Strengthening of Flat Slabs with Cut-Out Openings

A flat slab is a type of reinforced concrete floor system where the slab is supported directly by columns, instead of beams. This system...

Standard Penetration Test (SPT) for Foundation Design

The standard penetration test (SPT) is made in boreholes by means of the standard 50.8 mm outside and 33.8 mm inside diameter split spoon...

Cement and Types of Cement Used in Construction

Generically, cement is an inorganic fine powder that when mixed with water undergoes hydration reaction, and forms a paste which becomes the binder that...


Design of Slender Columns According to EC2

Loads from slabs and beams are transferred to the foundations through the columns. In typical cases, columns are usually rectangular or circular in shape....

What is the Correct Position for Column Rebar Laps?

Columns are compression members used for transferring superstructure loads to the foundation. In reinforced concrete detailing and construction, the lapping of reinforcements is almost...



Design of Pile Foundation System for Bridge Piers

Piles are the most preferred type of foundation for supporting the piers of overhead bridges. They offer greater resistance to vertical and horizontal actions...

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Effects of Diesel Contamination on the Engineering Properties of Natural Soils

Soil contamination is a serious problem and major environmental problem worldwide. Oil contamination of soils can occur as a result of oil drilling and...


Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

Some substances in aggregates can react with alkali hydroxides in concrete. It is only when this reactivity causes large expansion in the concrete it...

Column Formwork: Alternatives in Design and Construction

Formwork is an important aspect of the construction of reinforced concrete construction. Column formwork design and construction have evolved over the years with so...

Question of the Day | 20-12-2020

For the frame loaded as shown above, which of the following is the most likely bending moment diagram due to the externally applied load?

The West African Standard Compaction Test

The West African Standard (WAS) compaction test is a type of compaction procedure that utilises intermediate compaction energy (compactive effort) for densification of soils....

Akon’s Smart City Construction set to Begin in 2021 near Dakar, Senegal

Senegalese-American R&B singer Akon, is moving forward with plans to build a US$6 billion smart city in his country of birth, Senegal. Having finalized...

The House Built with Precast Concrete Culverts

In this article, Sky Marketing presents a creation of the Japanese architecture studio Nendo which has created a house and warehouse out of pieces...


Hemp and Recycled Aggregates Concrete (HRAC) is a sustainable concrete where coarse aggregates are partially replaced with industrial hemp fibers and recycled concrete aggregates...
The characteristic compressive strength of concrete to be used in construction is usually specified in the working drawings, design calculation sheets, and contract documents....





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