Cost of building a duplex in Nigeria (foundation to DPC)

The cost of building a duplex in Nigeria varies, and it is generally influenced by the size of the building, the price of construction materials, the design specifications, the expertise and machinery required, and the environment/location. Depending on the soil condition of the area, a special foundation may be needed for the building, which will affect the overall cost of the project. For instance, a raft foundation will be more expensive than a pad foundation, while deep foundations such as piles will be more expensive than raft foundation.

The construction cost of a building can also be influenced by the nature of the contract, and it will be in the best interest of the client to hire a professional consultant or project manager who will represent his interest throughout the duration of the project.

excavation of trench
Excavation of trench for construction of a duplex by Structville Integrated Services Limited

Intending homeowners must engage professionals during the design stage, in order to get their project right from the scratch. A complete construction drawing in Nigeria should include;

  • Full sets of architectural drawing
  • Structural drawings
  • Electrical drawings, and
  • Mechanical drawings

The client representative or project manager is expected to advise the client on how to get the drawings approved for construction depending on the jurisdiction. Requirements for approval varies from state to state and from local government to local government.

Construction of foundation
The construction of the substructure of a building (foundation) is very critical because any mistake in a foundation is very difficult and expensive to correct. A poorly constructed foundation can compromise the integrity of the entire building. Foundation construction has very little to do with the specifications of the architect, but he has to inspect the setting out of the building to ensure that his design has been followed. The major costs and activities involved in the foundation of a building such as residential duplexes are basically functions of engineering design.

substructure works
Setting out of column starter bars in a substructure

A good design will minimise cost, identify possible challenges in the construction of the building, guarantee the integrity and structural stability of the building, and subsequently lead to fewer difficulties during construction. Now that you are here, it is important that you play your part as an intending homeowner and engage registered professionals in your projects. This can help stop the problem of building collapse in Nigeria.

In this article, let us briefly review the cost of constructing a simple duplex from the foundation to the DPC (ground floor slab). The building is to be constructed in a semi-urban area in South-Eastern Nigeria. As stated earlier, the cost is dependent on the drawing provided by the structural engineer and not by guesswork. The actual price of materials in the locality, delivery to site, and labour will also influence the cost. Therefore, the cost provided in this article may not reflect the cost of materials in your locality.

The plan of the building is shown below;

Foundation layout of a
Foundation layout of a duplex

From the foundation layout, it can be seen that the structural engineer provided three types of pad foundations (BT1, BT2 and BT3). The size of any foundation is determined by the strength of the soil, and the load coming from the column. The details of the pad bases are given below;

Base Type 1 and 2
Base Type 1 and Base Type 2 structural details
Base Type 3
Base Type 3 structural details

The activities that will take place in the construction of the foundation are;

(1) Setting out works
(2) Excavation works
(3) Reinforcement works
(4) Formwork
(5) Concrete works
(6) Blockwork
(7) Backfilling and compaction
(8) Casting of ground floor slab

(1) Setting out
Width of building = 12.275 m
Length of building = 15.7 m

If we make a setback of 1.2 m from all sides of the building line for the profile board, the total perimeter of the profile board will be 65.55 m. At 1.5m spacing, we will need 45 pegs, and 20 pieces of 2″ x 3″ softwood. Let us assume that the equipment needed for setting out is available except lines.

(a) 2” x 3” soft wood – 25 pcs @ ₦400 = ₦12,500
(b) 2” x 2” pegs – (3 bundles @ 20 pieces per bundle) @ ₦1200 = ₦3,600
(c) Nails – 1 bag of 2 inches nail, and 1 bag of 3 inches nail = ₦26,000
(d) 6 rolls of lines = ₦2,000

Labour and supervision cost (say) = ₦30,000

Total cost of setting out = ₦74,100

(2) Excavation works
(a) Excavation of 19 column bases according to structural drawings to a depth not less than 1200 mm to receive blinding for pad foundation – Total volume = 42.42 m3
19 column bases @ ₦1000 = ₦19,000

(b) Excavation of strip footing 690 mm wide and 950 mm deep to receive mass concrete strip footing – Total volume = 70.13 m3
Labour cost for 30 partitions @ ₦2000 = ₦60,000
Supervision cost (say) = ₦20,000

Sub-total for excavation = ₦99,000

column starter bar setting out
Excavation and column setting out works

(3) Concrete works
(a) Provision of 50 mm thick weak concrete blinding (1:3:6) on column bases to receive footing reinforcement – Total volume = 1.8 m3
Cement – 8 bags @ ₦4,100 per bag = ₦32,800
Sand – 1.98 tonnes @ ₦3500 per tonne = ₦6,930
Granite – 2.52 tonnes @ ₦16000 per tonne = ₦40,320

(b) Provision of concrete with strength not less than 25 MPa after 28 days for the column bases – Total volume = 10.7 m3
Cement – 65 bags @ ₦4,100 per bag = ₦226,500
Sand – 12 tonnes @ ₦3500 per tonne = ₦42,000
Granite – 15 tonnes @ ₦16000 per tonne = ₦240,000

(c) Provision of concrete with strength not less than 20 MPa after 28 days for the mass concrete strip footing – Total volume = 8.5 m3
Cement – 51 bags @ ₦4,100 per bag = ₦209,100
Sand – 9.35 tonnes @ ₦3,500 per tonne = ₦32,725
Granite – 12 tonnes @ ₦16,000 per tonne = ₦192,000

(d) Casting of Column Stubs (1.5 m3)
Cement – 8 bags @ ₦4,100 per bag = ₦32,800
Sand – 1.65 tonnes @ ₦3500 per tonne = ₦5,775
Granite – 2.1 tonnes @ ₦16000 per tonne = ₦33,600

Labour cost for mixing, pouring and consolidation of concrete = ₦159,600
Supervision cost = ₦50,000

Cost of concrete works = ₦1,304,150

(4) Reinforcement Works
(a) Column base mat reinforcement
50 lengths of Y12 mm @ ₦3,700 per length = ₦185,000

(b) Column starter bars
20 lengths of Y16 mm @ ₦8,000 per length = ₦160,000

(c) Column links
13 lengths of Y8mm @ ₦2,100 per length = ₦27,300

(d) Binding wire
20 kg roll of binding wire @ ₦14,000 per roll = ₦14,000

Labour cost for cutting, bending, and placement of reinforcement = ₦40,000

Cost of reinforcement works = ₦426,300

(5) Blockwork
(a) Total number of 9 inches blocks required to raise the building to DPC = 1600 blocks
1600 pieces of 9” blocks @ ₦350 per block = ₦560,000

Labour cost for laying of blocks = ₦144,000
Cement for mortar = 32 bags @ ₦4100 per bag = ₦131,200
Sand = 10 tonnes @ ₦22,000 = ₦22,000
Supervision = ₦20,000

Cost of blockwork = ₦877,200

setting of blocks in foundation
Blockwork in substructure

(6) Formwork
(a) Provide formwork for sides of columns up to a height not less than 1225 mm.
20 pieces of 1” x 12” x 12 plank @ ₦1,350 per plank = ₦27,000

Labour cost for formwork preparation and placement = ₦15,000

Cost of formwork = ₦42,000

(7) Backfilling and compaction
(a) Backfill and compact substructure to a height not less than 550 mm above ground level with selected backfill material. Total volume = 100 m3
33 trips (165 tonnes) of laterite @ ₦12,000 per trip = ₦396,000
Labour cost for filling and compaction = ₦50,000

Total Cost of filling and compaction = ₦446,000

(8) Damp proof membrane
(a) Provide and install damp-proof membrane over an area not less than 181 m2
181 m2 of high density polythene sheet @ ₦385 per m2 = ₦69,685

Damp proof membrane = ₦69,685

(9) BRC mesh
(a) Provide and Install A142 BRC MESH (TOP) over an area not less than 181 m2
181 m2 of A142 BRC Mesh @ ₦1,200 per m2 = ₦217,200

Labour cost for installation = ₦5,000

Total Cost of BRC mesh = ₦222,200

(10) Ground floor Slab
(a) Cast ground floor slab over an area not less than 181 m2 and concrete of volume = 27.15 m3
Cement – 163 bags @ ₦4,100 per bag = ₦668,300
Sand – 30 tonnes @ ₦3500 per tonne = ₦105,000
Granite – 40 tonnes @ ₦16000 per tonne = ₦640,000

Labour cost for mixing, pouring and consolidation of concrete = ₦170,000
Supervision cost = ₦50,000
Casting of ground floor slab = ₦1,633,300

Therefore, the tentative cost of raising the building from foundation to DPC is ₦5,193,935 without the contractor’s profit and overhead.

Building off from DPC
Completed substructure of a duplex by the author

For design, construction, and professional management of your building project, contact;

Structville Integrated Services Limited
Phone call: +2348060307054
Whatsapp: +2347053638996


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