In the design of civil engineering structures, retaining walls are normally used to retain soil (earth materials), and they are usually found on embankments, highways, basement of buildings, etc. This publication presents an example on the design of retaining structures.
Section 9 of EN 1997-1 applies to retaining structures supporting ground (i.e. soil, rock or backfill) and/or water and is sub-divided as follows:
§9.2. Limit states
§9.3. Actions, geometrical data and design situations
§9.4. Design and construction considerations
§9.5. Determination of earth pressures
§9.6. Water pressures
§9.7. Ultimate limit state design
§9.8. Serviceability limit state design
According to EN 1997-1, ultimate limit states GEO and STR must be verified using one of three Design Approaches (DAs). The United Kingdom proposed to adopt Design Approach 1, and this has been used in this design. You can learn more about these design approaches by downloading the accompanying PDF file.
The design of gravity walls to Eurocode 7 involves checking that the ground beneath the wall has sufficient:
- bearing resistance to withstand inclined, eccentric actions
- sliding resistance to withstand horizontal and inclined actions
- stability to avoid toppling
- stiffness to prevent unacceptable settlement or tilt
Verification of ultimate limit states (ULSs) is demonstrated by satisfying the inequalities:
Vd ≤ Rd
Hd ≤ Rd
MEd,dst ≤ MEd,stb
In the example downloadable in this post, the retaining wall shown below has been analysed for resistance against sliding, overturning, and bearing. All the calculations were carried out at ultimate limit state.
After the calculations and computations, the following values were obtained;
To download this design in PDF version, click HERE (premium purchase).