The effect of wind on a building gets more significant as the height of the building increases. Due to the various flow scenarios that result from wind’s interaction with structures, wind load analysis on tall buildings is a very complex phenomenon. In a general stream of air flowing in relation to the earth’s surface, wind is made up of several eddies with different diameters and rotational properties. The wind is turbulent or gusty because of these eddies.

Strong winds’ lower atmosphere gustiness is mostly caused by contact with surface structures. While the gustiness of the wind tends to diminish with height, the average wind speed tends to increase over a period of time of the order of ten minutes or more. The size of the eddies affects the dynamic loading on a structure as a result of turbulence. Large eddies that are comparable in size to the structure create well-correlated pressures as they encircle it. On the other hand, minor eddies cause stresses on different regions of a structure that are essentially unrelated to the separation between them.

Some buildings, especially tall or slender ones, react to the influences of wind in a dynamic way. The causes of a structure’s dynamic response to wind are a variety of different occurrences. These include galloping, fluttering, buffeting, and vortex shedding. Due to turbulence buffeting, thin structures are likely to be sensitive to dynamic reactions in the direction of the wind.

Although turbulence buffeting can also cause a transverse or cross-wind reaction, vortex shedding or galloping is more likely to cause one. Flutter is a linked motion that frequently combines torsion and bending and can cause instability.

**Design Wind Pressure**

The geometry of the structure under consideration, the geometry and proximity of the structures upwind, and the characteristics of the approaching wind all influence the features of wind pressures on that structure. The wind is gusty, which contributes to the pressure fluctuations, but local vortex shedding around the borders of the buildings themselves is also a factor.

If a structure is dynamically wind-sensitive, the varying pressures can cause fatigue damage to it as well as dynamic excitation. Additionally, the pressures are not constant along the surface of the structure but rather change according to position.

When using a design document, it is important to keep in mind the complexity of wind loading. The maximum wind loads that a structure would sustain over the course of its lifetime may differ significantly from those estimated during design due to the numerous unknowns involved. As a result, the success or failure of a structure in a windstorm cannot always be interpreted as a sign of the conservatism or non-conservatism of the Wind Loading Standard.

Buildings and constructions with distinctive shapes or locations are exempt from the Standards’ application. Some types of constructions, such as tall skyscrapers and thin towers, are designed according to wind loading. It frequently becomes appealing to use experimental wind tunnel data instead of the Wind Loading Code coefficients for these buildings.

In this article, wind load analysis has been carried out on a 60m tall high-rise building using the method described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 (*General actions – Wind action*). The structure is assumed to be located in an area with a basic wind speed of 40 m/s.

**Basic Data**

Height of building = 60m

Width of a building = 30m

Structure – Framed building

The structure is located at terrain category II (see Table below)

**Basic wind velocity**

The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity V_{b,0} is the characteristic 10 minute mean wind velocity irrespective of wind direction and time of the year, at 10 m above ground level in open-country terrain with low vegetation such as grass, and with isolated obstacles with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights.

The basic wind velocity V_{b,0} is calculated from;

V_{b} = C_{dir} . C_{season} .V_{b,0}

Where:

V_{b} is the basic wind velocity defined as a function of wind direction and time of the year at 10m above the ground of terrain category II

V_{b,0} is the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity

C_{dir} is the directional factor (defined in the National Annex, but recommended value is 1.0)

C_{season} is the season factor (defined in the National Annex, but recommended value is 1.0)

For the area and location of the building that we are considering;

Basic wind velocity V_{b,0} = 40 m/s

V_{b} = C_{dir}. C_{season}.V_{b,0} = 1.0 × 1.0 × 40 = 40 m/s

**Mean Wind**

The mean wind velocity V_{m}(z) at a height z above the terrain depends on the terrain roughness and orography, and on the basic wind velocity, V_{b}, and should be determined using the expression below;

V_{m}(z) = c_{r}(z). c_{o}(z).V_{b}

Where;

c_{r}(z) is the roughness factor (defined below)

c_{o}(z) is the orography factor often taken as 1.0

The terrain roughness factor accounts for the variability of the mean wind velocity at the site of the structure due to the height above the ground level and the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind direction considered. Terrain categories and parameters are shown in Table 2.0.

c_{r}(z) = k_{r}. In (z/z_{0}) for z_{min} ≤ z ≤ z_{max}

c_{r}(z) = c_{r}.(z_{min}) for z ≤ z_{min}

Where:

Z_{0} is the roughness length

k_{r} is the terrain factor depending on the roughness length Z_{0} calculated using;

k_{r} = 0.19 (Z_{0}/Z_{0,II})^{0.07}

Where:

Z_{0,II} = 0.05m (terrain category II)

Z_{min} is the minimum height = 2 m

z = 60 m

Z_{max} is to be taken as 200 m

K_{r} = 0.19 (0.05/0.05)^{0.07} = 0.19

c_{r}(60) = k_{r}.In (z/z_{0}) = 0.19 × In(60/0.05) = 1.347

Therefore;

V_{m}(60) = c_{r}(z). c_{o}(z).V_{b} = 1.347 × 1.0 × 40 = 53.88 m/s

**Wind turbulence**

The turbulence intensity *I*_{v}(z) at height z is defined as the standard deviation of the turbulence divided by the mean wind velocity. The recommended rules for the determination of *I*_{v}(z) are given in the expressions below;

I_{v}(z) = σ_{v}/V_{m} = k_{l}/(c_{0}(z).In (z/z_{0})) for z_{min} ≤ z ≤ z_{max}

I_{v}(z) = I_{v}.(z_{min}) for z ≤ z_{min}

Where:

k_{l} is the turbulence factor of which the value is provided in the National Annex but the recommended value is 1.0

C_{o} is the orography factor described above

Z_{0} is the roughness length described above.

For the building that we are considering, the wind turbulence factor at 60m above the ground level;

I_{v}(60) = σ_{v}/V_{m} = k_{1}/[c_{0}(z).In(z/z_{0})] = 1/[1 × In(60/0.05)] = 0.141

**Peak Velocity Pressure**

The peak velocity pressure q_{p}(z) at height z is given by the expression below;

q_{p}(z) = [1 + 7.I_{v}(z)] 1/2.ρ.V_{m}^{2}(z) = c_{e(z)}.q_{b}

Where:

ρ is the air density, which depends on the altitude, temperature, and barometric pressure tobe expected in the region during wind storms (recommended value is 1.25kg/m^{3})

c_{e}(z) is the exposure factor given by;

c_{e}(z) = q_{p}(z)/q_{b}

q_{b} is the basic velocity pressure given by; q_{b} = 0.5.ρ.V_{b}^{2}

q_{p}(60m) = [1 + 7(0.141)] × 0.5 × 1.25 × 53.88^{2} = 3605.23 N/m^{2}

Therefore, q_{p}(60m) = 3.605 kN/m^{2}

**External Pressure Coefficients**

From Table 7.1 of EN 1991-1-4:2005 (E)

For the building, taking the height to width ratio h/d = 2.0

Pressure coefficient for windward side = +0.8

Pressure coefficient for leeward side = –0.6

The net pressure coefficient C_{pe10} = +0.8 – (–0.6) = 1.4

The net external surface pressure on the structure = q_{p}(z) C_{pe10} = 3.6057 × 1.4 = 5.05 kN/m^{2}

Therefore, w_{e} = 5.05 kN/m^{2}

**Detailed Calculation**

Wind loading of a high-rise building in accordance with EN1991-1-3:2005+A1:2010 and the UK national annex.

**Building data**

Type of roof; Flat

Length of building; L = 30000 mm

Width of building; W = 30000 mm

Height to eaves; H = 60000 mm

Eaves type; Sharp

Total height; h = 60000 mm

**Basic values**

Location; Ibadan, Nigeria

Wind speed velocity (FigureNA.1); v_{b,map} = 40.0 m/s

Distance to shore; L_{shore} = 250.00 km

Altitude above sea level; A_{alt} = 100.0m

Altitude factor; c_{alt} = A_{alt}/1m × 0.001 + 1 = 1.100

Fundamental basic wind velocity; v_{b,0} = v_{b,map} × c_{alt} = 44.0 m/s

Direction factor; c_{dir} = 1.00

Season factor; c_{season} = 1.00

Shape parameter K; K = 0.2

Exponent n; n = 0.5

Air density; ρ = 1.226 kg/m^{3}

Probability factor; c_{prob} = [(1 – K × ln(-ln(1-p)))/(1 – K × ln(-ln(0.98)))]^{n} = **1.00**

Basic wind velocity (Exp. 4.1); v_{b} = c_{dir} × c_{season} × v_{b,0} × c_{prob} = **44.0** m/s

Reference mean velocity pressure; q_{b} = 0.5 × ρ × v_{b}^{2} = **1.187** kN/m^{2}

Orography

Orography factor not significant; c_{o} = 1.0

Terrain category; Country

Displacement height (sheltering effect excluded); h_{dis} = 0mm

The velocity pressure for the windward face of the building with a 0 degree wind is to be considered as 2 parts as the height h is greater than b but less than 2b (cl.7.2.2)

The velocity pressure for the windward face of the building with a 90 degree wind is to be considered as 2 parts as the height h is greater than b but less than 2b (cl.7.2.2)

**Peak velocity pressure – windward wall (lower part) – Wind 0 deg**

Reference height (at which q is sought); z = 30000mm

Displacement height (sheltering effects excluded); h_{dis} = 0 mm

Exposure factor (Figure NA.7); c_{e} = 3.05

Library item: Peak velocity factors output

Peak velocity pressure; q_{p} = c_{e} × q_{b} = 3.62 kN/m^{2}

**Structural factor**

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 30000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.895

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.895

**Peak velocity pressure – windward wall (upper part) – Wind 0 deg and roof**

Reference height (at which q is sought); z = 60000mm

Displacement height (sheltering effects excluded); h_{dis} = 0 mm

Exposure factor (Figure NA.7); c_{e} = 3.50

Peak velocity pressure; q_{p} = c_{e} × q_{b} = 4.16 kN/m^{2}

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 30000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.907

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.907

**Structural factor**

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 60000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.888

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.888

**Peak velocity pressure – windward wall (lower part) – Wind 90 deg**

Reference height (at which q is sought); z = 30000mm

Displacement height (sheltering effects excluded); h_{dis} = 0 mm

Exposure factor (Figure NA.7); c_{e} = 3.05

Peak velocity pressure; q_{p} = c_{e} × q_{b} = 3.62 kN/m^{2}

**Structural factor**

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 30000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.895

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.895

**Peak velocity pressure – windward wall (upper part) – Wind 90 deg and roof**

Reference height (at which q is sought); z = 60000mm

Displacement height (sheltering effects excluded); h_{dis} = 0 mm

Exposure factor (Figure NA.7); c_{e} = 3.50

Peak velocity pressure; q_{p} = c_{e} × q_{b} = 4.16 kN/m^{2}

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 30000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.907

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.907

**Structural factor**

Structural damping; d_{s} = 0.100

Height of element; h_{part} = 60000 mm

Size factor (Table NA.3); c_{s} = 0.888

Dynamic factor (Figure NA.9); c_{d} = 1.000

Structural factor; c_{sCd} = c_{s} × c_{d} = 0.888

**Peak velocity pressure for internal pressure**

Peak velocity pressure – internal (as roof press.); q_{p,i} = **4.16** kN/m^{2}

Pressures and forces

Net pressure; p = c_{sCd} × q_{p} × c_{pe} – q_{p,i} × c_{pi};

Net force; F_{w} = p_{w} × A_{ref};

**Roof load case 1 – Wind 0, c _{pi} 0.20, -c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

F (-ve) | -2.00 | 4.16 | -9.15 | -8.22 | 45.00 | -411.69 | -369.93 |

G (-ve) | -1.40 | 4.16 | -6.65 | -6.00 | 45.00 | -299.41 | -270.18 |

H (-ve) | -0.70 | 4.16 | -3.74 | -3.42 | 360.00 | -1347.33 | -1230.43 |

I (-ve) | -0.20 | 4.16 | -1.66 | -1.57 | 450.00 | -748.52 | -706.77 |

Total vertical net force; F_{w,v} = **-2577.31** kN

Total horizontal net force; F_{w,h} = **0.00** kN

**Walls load case 1 – Wind 0, c _{pi} 0.20, -c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

A | -1.20 | 4.16 | -5.82 | -5.36 | 360.00 | -2095.85 | -1928.18 |

B | -0.80 | 4.16 | -4.16 | -3.85 | 1440.00 | -5988.15 | -5541.03 |

D_{b} | 0.80 | 3.62 | 2.07 | 1.76 | 900.00 | 1859.33 | 1585.51 |

D_{u} | 0.80 | 4.16 | 2.50 | 2.18 | 900.00 | 2245.55 | 1966.11 |

E | -0.55 | 4.16 | -3.12 | -2.91 | 1800.00 | -5613.89 | -5229.65 |

**Overall loading**

Equivalent leeward net force for upper section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wu} = **-2614.8** kN

Net windward force for upper section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wus} = **1966.1** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/W is 2.000

Overall loading upper section;

F_{w,u} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l} + F_{w,h}) = **4065.6** kN

Equiv leeward net force for bottom section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wb} = **-2614.8** kN

Net windward force for bottom section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wbs} = **1585.5** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/W is 2.000

Overall loading bottom section;

F_{w,b} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l}) = **3727.8** kN

**Roof load case 2 – Wind 0, c _{pi} -0.3, +c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

F (+ve) | -2.00 | 4.16 | -7.07 | -6.14 | 45.00 | -318.12 | -276.37 |

G (+ve) | -1.40 | 4.16 | -4.57 | -3.92 | 45.00 | -205.84 | -176.62 |

H (+ve) | -0.70 | 4.16 | -1.66 | -1.34 | 360.00 | -598.81 | -481.91 |

I (+ve) | 0.20 | 4.16 | 2.08 | 1.99 | 450.00 | 935.65 | 893.90 |

Total vertical net force; F_{w,v} = **-41.00** kN

Total horizontal net force; F_{w,h} = **0.00** kN

**Walls load case 2 – Wind 0, c _{pi} -0.3, +c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

A | -1.20 | 4.16 | -3.74 | -3.28 | 360.00 | -1347.33 | -1179.66 |

B | -0.80 | 4.16 | -2.08 | -1.77 | 1440.00 | -2994.07 | -2546.96 |

D_{b} | 0.80 | 3.62 | 4.15 | 3.84 | 900.00 | 3730.63 | 3456.80 |

D_{u} | 0.80 | 4.16 | 4.57 | 4.26 | 900.00 | 4116.85 | 3837.40 |

E | -0.55 | 4.16 | -1.04 | -0.83 | 1800.00 | -1871.30 | -1487.06 |

**Overall loading**

Equivalent leeward net force for upper section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wu} = **-743.5** kN

Net windward force for upper section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wus} = **3837.4** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/W is 2.000

Overall loading upper section;

F_{w,u} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l} + F_{w,h}) = **4065.6** kN

Library item: Overall loading output

Equiv leeward net force for bottom section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wb} = **-743.5** kN

Net windward force for bottom section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wbs} = **3456.8** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/W is 2.000

Overall loading bottom section;

F_{w,b} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l}) = **3727.8** kN

**Roof load case 3 – Wind 90, c _{pi} 0.20, -c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

F (-ve) | -2.00 | 4.16 | -9.15 | -8.22 | 45.00 | -411.69 | -369.93 |

G (-ve) | -1.40 | 4.16 | -6.65 | -6.00 | 45.00 | -299.41 | -270.18 |

H (-ve) | -0.70 | 4.16 | -3.74 | -3.42 | 360.00 | -1347.33 | -1230.43 |

I (-ve) | -0.20 | 4.16 | -1.66 | -1.57 | 450.00 | -748.52 | -706.77 |

Total vertical net force; F_{w,v} = **-2577.31** kN

Total horizontal net force; F_{w,h} = **0.00** kN

**Walls load case 3 – Wind 90, c _{pi} 0.20, -c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

A | -1.20 | 4.16 | -5.82 | -5.36 | 360.00 | -2095.85 | -1928.18 |

B | -0.80 | 4.16 | -4.16 | -3.85 | 1440.00 | -5988.15 | -5541.03 |

D_{b} | 0.80 | 3.62 | 2.07 | 1.76 | 900.00 | 1859.33 | 1585.51 |

D_{u} | 0.80 | 4.16 | 2.50 | 2.18 | 900.00 | 2245.55 | 1966.11 |

E | -0.55 | 4.16 | -3.12 | -2.91 | 1800.00 | -5613.89 | -5229.65 |

**Overall loading**

Equiv leeward net force for upper section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wu} = **-2614.8** kN

Net windward force for upper section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wus} = **1966.1** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/L is 2.000

Overall loading upper section;

F_{w,u} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l} + F_{w,h}) = **4065.6** kN

Library item: Overall loading output

Equiv leeward net force for bottom section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wb} = **-2614.8** kN

Net windward force for bottom section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wbs} = **1585.5** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/L is 2.000

Overall loading bottom section;

F_{w,b} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l}) = **3727.8** kN

**Roof load case 4 – Wind 90, c _{pi} -0.3, +c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

F (+ve) | -2.00 | 4.16 | -7.07 | -6.14 | 45.00 | -318.12 | -276.37 |

G (+ve) | -1.40 | 4.16 | -4.57 | -3.92 | 45.00 | -205.84 | -176.62 |

H (+ve) | -0.70 | 4.16 | -1.66 | -1.34 | 360.00 | -598.81 | -481.91 |

I (+ve) | 0.20 | 4.16 | 2.08 | 1.99 | 450.00 | 935.65 | 893.90 |

Total vertical net force; F_{w,v} = **-41.00** kN

Total horizontal net force; F_{w,h} = **0.00** kN

**Walls load case 4 – Wind 90, c _{pi} -0.3, +c_{pe}**

Zone | Ext pressure coeff c _{pe} | Peak velocity pressure q _{p} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure element, p _{e} (kN/m^{2}) | Net pressure structure p _{s} (kN/m^{2}) | Area A _{ref} (m^{2}) | Net force element F _{w,e} (kN) | Net force structure F _{w,s} (kN) |

A | -1.20 | 4.16 | -3.74 | -3.28 | 360.00 | -1347.33 | -1179.66 |

B | -0.80 | 4.16 | -2.08 | -1.77 | 1440.00 | -2994.07 | -2546.96 |

D_{b} | 0.80 | 3.62 | 4.15 | 3.84 | 900.00 | 3730.63 | 3456.80 |

D_{u} | 0.80 | 4.16 | 4.57 | 4.26 | 900.00 | 4116.85 | 3837.40 |

E | -0.55 | 4.16 | -1.04 | -0.83 | 1800.00 | -1871.30 | -1487.06 |

**Overall loading**

Equiv leeward net force for upper section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wu} = **-743.5** kN

Net windward force for upper section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wus} = **3837.4** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/L is 2.000

Overall loading upper section;

F_{w,u} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l} + F_{w,h}) = **4065.6** kN

Library item: Overall loading output

Equiv leeward net force for bottom section;

F_{l} = F_{w,wEs} / A_{ref,wE} × A_{ref,wb} = **-743.5** kN

Net windward force for bottom section;

F_{w} = F_{w,wbs} = **3456.8** kN

Lack of correlation (cl.7.2.2(3) – Note);

f_{corr} = **0.89**; as h/L is 2.000

Overall loading bottom section;

F_{w,b} = f_{corr} × (F_{w} – F_{l}) = **3727.8** kN

I want to request for PDf file on tall buildings, sodekeaugustine3@gmail.com Thanks

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stefano.barone.87@gmail.com

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Thank you

ahmad.naqvi@hotmail.com

From these calculations, it is not clear that the wind profile varies with height….or the requirements that lead to your assumptions.

Congratulations for your contributions…keep up

The Eurocode National Annex to BS EN 1991-1-4 Allows the use of an coefficient which can be used to calculate the overall wind load on the building.

Please arrange to mail pdf file in my email id:- kishor_bsnl@yahoo.com

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Dear Engineer help in analysis wind load

on vertical wall having height between width and two times width and

height greater than two times width if you have related data as per

Euro code 1991,1-4 0r Es En 1991,1-4 ,2015 please help me

how calculate the wind pressure variation due to height or height b/n b and 2b or more than 2 width b.

You are doing a great job sir???