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Reinforced Concrete Structures

Concrete is arguably the most widely used construction material in the world. It is produced from a mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water...

Deflection of Structures According to Eurocode 2

Checking for deflection is an important serviceability limit state (SLS) requirement in the design of structures. This check ensures that the structure does not...

Effect of Impact Load on Lap Length of Reinforcements in RC Structures

Lap length and anchorage length of reinforcements is very important for continuity, strength, and ease of construction in reinforced concrete structures. When reinforcements are...

Structural Design of Corbels

A corbel is a very short structural cantilever member projecting from a wall or a column for the purpose of carrying loads. In reinforced...

Lapping of Reinforcements and Use of Rebar Couplers – Peculiarities and Differences

In reinforced concrete buildings, it is almost impossible to carry out construction without lapping reinforcements at one point or another. This is due to...

The Role of Compression Steel in Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Deflection is one of the most important serviceability limit state criteria in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Excessive deflection in a structure can...

Engineers React to Large Span Cantilever Slab Construction

A structural engineer posted a picture of a large cantilever slab construction on LinkedIn, and so many reactions have followed the picture due to...

Cracking Due to Edge Restraint and Early Thermal Effects in Concrete

Crack width is calculated by multiplying the crack inducing strain by the crack spacing (i.e. the movement over a length equal to the crack...

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Concrete

Coefficient of thermal expansion is defined as the change in unit length per degree of temperature change. In a concrete element, it is therefore...

Restraint and Restraint Factors of Concrete

If movement (expansion and/or contraction) is restricted within a young concrete element, tensile stresses will develop which will lead to cracking. This restriction to...

Cracking in Concrete

Eurocode recognises that cracking is normal in concrete subjected to bending, shear, torsion, and restraint from movement (clause 7.3.1 EN 1992 1-1). Cracking is...

Crack Width and Crack Spacing Calculation in Concrete

Cracking occurs in concrete when the restrained strain exceeds the tensile strain capacity of the concrete. In critical elements like water retaining structures, crack...

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