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The Role of Compression Steel in Deflection of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Deflection is one of the most important serviceability limit state criteria in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Excessive deflection in...

Design of Bridge Pier and Pier Cap

Bridge pier caps are horizontal structural members used for transferring bridge deck loads to the piers, before they are transferred to...

Cracking Due to Edge Restraint and Early Thermal Effects in Concrete

Crack width is calculated by multiplying the crack inducing strain by the crack spacing (i.e. the movement over a length equal...

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Concrete

Coefficient of thermal expansion is defined as the change in unit length per degree of temperature change. In a concrete element,...

Restraint and Restraint Factors of Concrete

If movement (expansion and/or contraction) is restricted within a young concrete element, tensile stresses will develop which will lead to cracking....

Cracking in Concrete

Eurocode recognises that cracking is normal in concrete subjected to bending, shear, torsion, and restraint from movement (clause 7.3.1 EN 1992...

Crack Width and Crack Spacing Calculation in Concrete

Cracking occurs in concrete when the restrained strain exceeds the tensile strain capacity of the concrete. In critical elements like water...

Minimum Area of Steel for Imposed Deformation Cracking

Minimum reinforcement is provided to ensure that yielding does not occur, and by so doing, cracking is adequately controlled in a...

Detailing of Columns to Eurocode 2

It is important to carry out proper detailing after design of reinforced concrete columns. The requirements for column detailing is outlined in...

Structural Design of Ribbed Slabs

Ribbed slab is a type of reinforced concrete slabs in which some of the volume of concrete in the tension zone is...

Formulas for Calculating Different Properties of Concrete from Compressive Strength

The most basic test done on concrete in most laboratories is the compressive strength test. Sometimes other properties of concrete such as...

Difference between Autogenous and Drying Shrinkage of Concrete

Autogenous shrinkage is caused by self-dessication in young concrete as water is consumed during hydration reaction. This occurs majorly within the early...

Most Read

Structural Design of Signposts and Billboards

As the name implies, signposts are post bearing structures that offer information or guidance to people. They are a prominent feature...

Structural Design of Corbels

A corbel is a very short structural cantilever member projecting from a wall or a column for the purpose of carrying...

P-Delta Analysis

P-delta is a geometric non-linear effect that occurs in structures that are subjected to compressive loads and lateral displacement. Under the...

Plates on Elastic Foundation

Many problems of practical importance can be related to the solution of plates resting on an elastic foundation. Reinforced concrete pavements...
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